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Jargon Buster

ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development.

Advocate

An independent person or organisation who can support somebody to express their views and make their own decisions.

Annual review

The review of an Education, Health and Care Plan (EHCP). This must be completed within 12 months of making the plan and then on an annual basis. Children in Early Years may have them more often.

Appeal

The legal process of arguing against something or questioning a decision you don’t agree with.

ASD (Autistic Spectrum Disorder)

ASD is a range of mental disorders of the neurodevelopmental type. It includes autism and Asperger syndrome. Individuals on the autistic spectrum often experience difficulties with social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests, or activities.

Assessment

A test or analysis of a level of need.

Autonomy

Making decisions about things in your life independently.

CAMHS (Children and Adolescent Mental Health Service)

The name for NHS-provided services in the United Kingdom for children, generally until school-leaving age, who are having difficulties with their emotional well-being or are deemed to have persistent behavioural problems.

Care Order

Under section 31 of the children act 1989, a care order grants the local authority parental responsibility for a child (which is shared with the primary carers e.g., parents). The order lasts until the individual turns 18 years old or are discharged. All children subject to a care order are children looked after, and they will have a care plan. 

Care Plan

Care plans are the way we plan and agree how someone’s health and social needs can be met, and how good health and wellbeing can be supported.

Case study

A real-life example of someone’s experience.

CCG

Clinical commissioning group (responsible for planning and arranging delivery of health care provision for people in its area). 

Child in Need (CIN)

According to Section 17 (10) of the Children Act 1989, a young person are a Child in Need if they are unlikely to achieve/maintain a reasonable standard of health/development without support from the local authority, if their health or development is likely to be significantly impaired without provision from services such as the local authority, or if the young person is disabled. The young people will also be recipients of a Child in Need Plan.

Child Protection Plan

If a child is deemed to be at continued risk of significant harm, a multi-agency Child Protection Plan is created to protect the child (the child will be designated as under Child Protection status). The young person will be allocated a social worker amongst other professionals to support them. 

Children and Family Act

Law introduced by the Government in September 2014 which changed how disabled children, young people and families get the help they need.

Co-production

Co-production is when everyone is involved at the very start of a project/piece of work, when someone has an idea they bring everyone together before any further work is done.

Corporate parenting

The local authority who has a legal and moral duty to provide support to a young person, in the same vein as a parent would.

County lines

County lines is a form of criminal exploitation where urban gangs persuade, coerce, or force children and young people to store drugs and money and/or transport them to suburban areas, market towns and coastal towns. It can happen in any part of the UK, and is against the law and a form of child abuse. 

Direct Payment

Money paid to you directly by your local authority, allowing you to organise your care and support independently.

Disagreement resolution

This is a statutory service commissioned by local authorities to provide a quick and non-adversarial way of resolving disagreements between parents or young people and bodies responsible for providing education, whether the child or young person has an EHC plan or not, or health and social care in relation to EHC assessments and plans.

Disagreement resolution services can also be used in cases of disagreement between local authorities and health commissioning bodies during EHC needs assessments, the drawing up of EHC plans or the reviewing of those plans.

DoLS

Deprivation of liberty safeguards are part of the mental capacity act 2005. The safeguards aim to make sure that people in care homes and hospitals are looked after in a way that does not inappropriately restrict their freedom. 

Early Help Assessment

A social care assessment of a child and his or her family, designed to identify needs at an early stage and enable suitable interventions to be put in place to support the family.

EHCO (Education, Health, and Care Officer)

An education, health, and care officer is responsible for managing EHCPS. 

EYFS (Early Years Foundation Stage)

The foundation stage begins when children reach the age of three. Many children attend an early education setting soon after their third birthday. The foundation stage continues until the end of the reception year. 

Early Years Provider

A provider of early education places for children under five years of age. This can include state-funded and private nurseries as well as child minders.

EHCP (Education Health and Care Plan)

An EHC plan details the education, health and social care support that is to be provided to a child or young person who has SEN or a disability. It is drawn up by the local authority after an EHC needs assessment of the child or young person has determined that an EHC plan is necessary, and after consultation with relevant partner agencies.

First Tier Tribunal (SEND)

An independent body which has jurisdiction under section 333 of the Education Act 1996 for determining appeals by parents against local authority decisions on EHC needs assessments and EHC plans. The Tribunal’s decision is binding on both parties to the appeal. The Tribunal also hears claims of disability discrimination under the Equality Act 2010.

Further education

When a decision is made to stay in education after leaving school by going to college, do an apprenticeship or supported internship.

Futures+

A social care team within East Riding of Yorkshire Council supporting those with a range of disabilities transitioning from children’s services to adult services, and preparation for independence for young people and adults. 

Graduated Approach

A model of action and intervention in early education settings, schools and colleges to help children and young people who have special educational needs. The approach recognises that there is a continuum of special educational needs and that, where necessary, increasing specialist expertise should be brought to bear on the difficulties that a child or young person may be experiencing.

Health and Wellbeing Board

Key people from the local health and care system working together to improve the health and wellbeing of their local population.

Healthwatch England

An organisation that can support you to help public health organisations improve their services in your local area. Healthwatch England is an independent consumer champion, gathering and representing the views of the public about health and social care services in England.

Higher education

When you choose to stay in education after you’ve left school, usually to go to university or college.

Interim Care Order

Similar to a care order but lasting up to 8 weeks with a 28 renewal period. There is no limit to the number of Interim Care Orders that can be made. 

JSNA (Joint Strategic Needs Assessment)

Description of the current and future health, care and wellbeing needs of your local area, helping the local Health and Wellbeing Board.

Local Offer

Information describing the services and support available in your local area for disabled children, young people and families.

Mediation

The process of finding common ground when two people or groups disagree about something.

NEET

Not in Education Employment or Training.

MLD (Moderate Learning Difficulties)

Moderate Learning Difficulties is a term applied to children who have difficulties resulting in school attainments below expected levels in many areas of the curriculum, despite academic support and differentiation.

Participation

Opportunities to be part of decisions that are important to you which may lead to changes.

PCF (Parent Carer Forum)

A Parent Carer Forum is a group of parents and carers of disabled children who work with local authorities, education, health and other providers to make sure the services they plan and deliver meet the needs of disabled children and families.

PCP (Person Centred Planning)

Person centred planning provides a way of helping a person plan all aspects of their life, thus ensuring that the individual remains central to the creation of any plan which will affect them. Person centred planning is not an assessment. It should be about making changes in a person’s life and planning for the future.

Parental responsibility

Parental responsibility is defined under Section 3 (1) of the Children Act 1989 as meaning all the duties, rights, powers, responsibilities and authority which parents have with respect to their children and their children’s property.

PD (Physical Disability)

A physical disability is a substantial and long-term condition affecting a part of a person’s body that impairs and limits their physical functioning, mobility, stamina or dexterity.

Personal Budget

A Personal Budget is an amount of money agreed with the local authority to deliver the education, health and/or social care provision in an Education, Health and Care Plan (EHCP) when the parent or young person are involved in securing that provision. A Direct Payment is one of the methods of managing a Personal Budget; where the parent or young person buys and arranges the services for provision themselves, rather than the local authority.

PEP (Personal Education Plan)

A Personal Education Plan (PEP) is a statutory active document for a looked-after child. It forms the education part of the child's Care Plan.

PMLD (Profound Multiple Learning Difficulties)

A profound and multiple learning disability is when a person has a severe learning disability and other disabilities that significantly affect their ability to communicate and be independent. Someone with PMLD may have severe difficulties seeing, hearing, speaking and moving.

Portage

Portage is a home-visiting educational service for pre-school children with SEND and their families.

SEMH (Social Emotional Mental Health)

Social, emotional and mental health needs (SEMH) are a type of special educational needs in which children/young people have severe difficulties in managing their emotions and behaviour. They often show inappropriate responses and feelings to situations.

SEND (Special educational Needs and Disabilities)

Something that can affect an ability to learn, a person’s behaviour or their ability to socialise.

SENDIASS (Special Educational Needs and Disabilities Independent Advice and Support Service)

SENDIASS is a confidential and impartial information, advice and support service on issues related to Special Educational Needs and Disability (SEND). It is free, easy to access and confidential. They can help children, parents and young people take part in decisions that affect their lives.

SENCO (Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator)

A SENCo, is the person in an educational setting who is responsible for assessing, planning and monitoring the progress of children with special educational needs and disabilities

SLD (Severe Learning Difficulties)

Learners with severe learning difficulties (SLD) have very significant intellectual or cognitive impairments. Their cognitive and/or attainment levels are normally at or below the 0.01 percentile. This has a major effect on their ability to participate in the school curriculum without support.

SLCN (Speech Language Communication Needs)

Children and young people with SLCN may have difficulty with only one speech, language or communication skill, or with several. They may have difficulties with listening and understanding or with talking or both.

SpLD (Specific Learning Difficulty)

The term ‘Specific Learning Difficulty’ is a term that refers to a difference or difficulty with particular aspects of learning. The most common SpLDs are dyslexia, dyspraxia, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, dyscalculia and dysgraphia. 

Special school

Special schools are those that provide an education for children with a special educational need or disability. There are many different types of special school, but essentially, they all educate children and young people whose needs cannot be met within a mainstream setting.

Statutory

Required by law.

Supported internship

Opportunities for people aged 16-24 with learning difficulties or learning disabilities (with an EHCP), who want to get a job and need extra support.

Team Around the Family (TAF) Meeting

Also known as a multi-agency meeting (MAM), a Team Around the Family meeting, or TAF, is designed to provide an opportunity for both the family and professionals connected with the family together to discuss and coordinate support for a child, young person and their family.

Transition

Movement or change from one place or state to another, whether this is a school setting, age or even from one room to another room.

Tribunal

People involved in a disagreement will talk in front of a group of experts who are not aware of the problem but will have the final say on what happens.

T.Y.L.E.R (The Young Leaders of East Riding)

TYLER is a group of young people who want to ensure all children and young people who have a disability, learning difficulty or health needs get their voices heard. The TYLER group has been running since 2015.

Voluntary Organisations

A group of people who enter into an agreement, usually as volunteers (unpaid work), to form an organisation designed to help people.

VSH (Virtual School Head)

The Virtual School acts as a local authority champion to promote the progress and educational attainment of children and young people who are or who have been in care so that they achieve educational outcomes comparable to their peers. Virtual school heads are in charge of promoting the educational achievement of all the children looked after by the local authority they work for.